Mobile positioning makes a series of exciting wireless applications possible, and its impact is very wide, such as entertainment, location-based advertising, navigation, asset management and geographic information access. Location information can also directly influence people to make timely decisions on the way, such as how to avoid traffic jams, accidents or bad weather, and choose midway destinations or use local resources, including gas stations, food stores, hotels and taxis. Possible positioning applications include the following types:
â— Location-sensitive billing: For callers at home or office, wireless operators can provide price-competitive services through mobile phones to compete with fixed-line operators.
â— Location-based information service: Provides driving information and local information about weather, traffic, restaurants, hotels, department stores, and gas stations.
â— Emergency response: Emergency requests are automatically routed to the correct PSAP, with accurate and timely location information, so as to ensure that emergency assistance is obtained in the shortest time. This business is very useful for automotive field assistance.
â— Network planning and management: Statistics of wireless network operations can be used to plan network expansion, operation, and deployment, or to dynamically adjust network parameters.
â— Fraud management: Location information can be used to detect and eliminate fraud.
â— Vehicle and resource management: Resource tracking optimizes resource allocation and reduces feedback time.
â— Personal location services: employers, parents, friends and relatives can use location services to find each other.
In June 1996, the US FCC adopted a report and passed a decree to enforce the 911 wireless service (E911). The decree requires cellular, broadband PCS and regional small and medium wireless operators to forward the calling phone number to the PSAP, automatically route 911 calls to the appropriate PSAP, and provide the location of the originating mobile station (MS). For mobile phone-based solutions, the FCC requires wireless operators to locate 67% of emergency calls within 50 meters and 95% of emergency calls within 150 meters. The regulation promotes the application of global positioning services in the United States.
Wireless positioning technology
Wireless positioning can usually be achieved by mobile phone-based or network-based methods.
Cell phone-based methods usually rely on a global positioning system (GPS). The GPS solution is implemented by a system of 24 GPS satellites that orbit the earth every 12 hours. The pure GPS solution has a sharp drop in performance and availability in areas with poor satellite signals, such as indoor or dense urban building areas. The positioning speed is also relatively slow, and it is also expensive to implement and deploy. Despite recent significant improvements in GPS technology, these problems still seriously affect the cost, availability, and performance of GPS solutions.
Network-based solutions rely on signal forwarding from mobile stations (MS) to multiple base stations (BS). Network-based methods are affected by multiple factors such as multipath, diffraction, weak signals, and base station geometry, resulting in reduced accuracy and usability, especially in rural and high-building situations.
gpsOne and SnapTrack hybrid positioning solution
Qualcomm takes full advantage of the complementary features of the network and GPS solutions to develop a unique wireless positioning technology. In rural and suburban areas, the low density of cell sites leads to poor network solution performance and service availability, but in these areas, GPS receivers usually receive very good results and can receive signals from 4 or more satellites . Contrary to the above situation, in dense urban areas and inside buildings, GPS receivers often cannot receive enough satellite signals to calculate positioning, but can access signals from multiple cell sites. The gpsOne and SnapTrack solutions fully integrate the complementary advantages of the network and GPS solutions. The use of cellular / wireless network information and satellite-based GPS information directly improves the location availability, sensitivity, accuracy, and time-consuming location.
In the gpsOne hybrid solution, the mobile station (MS) collects measurement data from both GPS galaxies and cellular / PCS networks. These data are combined to produce accurate three-dimensional positioning. By combining the information from these two information sources, the gpsOne positioning solution only needs as few as one satellite and one cell site signal to complete positioning. Field tests confirmed that the performance of these solutions can meet and exceed the requirements of FCC E911.
Qualcomm has integrated the gpsOne solution in its CDMA chipset system. The gpsOne solution directly utilizes the inherent capabilities and architecture of CDMA to achieve tight integration with the CDMA receive chain. Compared with the common decentralized conventional solutions in the industry, the gpsOne solution does not require additional ASICs or memory. Devices supported by Qualcomm IS-95A / B MSM3300 and 3G 1X MSM5100 chips include a gpsOne core, and future MSM series chips will also Support gpsOne technology. In addition, the Qualcomm MSM architecture solution uses the SnapTrack algorithm that supports multi-channel anti-fading and signal enhancement. On this basis, it is very convenient to use the BREW platform to develop corresponding value-added positioning applications. At present, related applications based on gpsOne have been launched in some regions, such as finding the nearest McDonald's fast food restaurant, traffic jam navigation service, etc.
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