Z-Wave is a wireless networking standard led by the Danish company Zensys. Although the Z-wave Alliance is not as strong as the ZigBee Alliance, members of the Z-wave Alliance already have existing products in the smart home field. Manufacturers, the alliance has more than 160 internationally renowned companies, covering a wide range of countries and regions around the world.

Why does Z-wave take a strong position in smart homes? This is mainly based on the properties of Z-Wave.

Z-Wave is an emerging RF-based, low-cost, low-power, high-reliability, network-ready short-range wireless communication technology. The working frequency band is 908.42MHz (USA) ~ 868.42MHz (Europe), using FSK (BFSK/GFSK) modulation mode, the data transmission rate is 9.6 kbps, the effective coverage of the signal is 30m indoors, and the outdoor can exceed 100m, suitable for narrow Bandwidth applications. As the communication distance increases, the complexity, power consumption and system cost of the device increase. Compared with the existing wireless communication technologies, Z-Wave technology will be the lowest power consumption and lowest cost technology. Drive low-rate wireless personal area networks.

Z-Wave technology is designed for residential, lighting commercial control and status reading applications such as meter reading, lighting and appliance control, HVAC, access control, theft and fire detection. Z-Wave converts any stand-alone device into an intelligent network device for control and wireless monitoring. Z-Wave technology was originally positioned in the field of smart home wireless control when it was originally designed. With a small data format transmission, the transmission rate of 40 kb/s is sufficient, and even at a rate of 9.6 kb/s. Compared with other wireless technologies of the same kind, it has a relatively low transmission frequency, a relatively long transmission distance and a certain price advantage.

Z-Wave technology is designed specifically for narrowband applications and replaces costly hardware with innovative software solutions, so you can build high-quality wireless networks at a fraction of the cost of other similar technologies.

Network structure

Each Z-Wave network has its own independent network address (HomeID); the address (NodeID) of each node in the network is assigned by the control node (Controller). Each network can accommodate up to 232 nodes (Slave), including control nodes. There may be multiple control nodes, but only one primary control node, that is, the allocation of nodes in all networks, is responsible for the primary control node, and other control nodes are only commands for forwarding the primary control node. A common node that has been connected to the network, all control nodes can be controlled. Nodes that exceed the communication distance can be controlled in a routing manner through other nodes between the controller and the controlled node.

Routing technology

Z-Wave uses dynamic routing technology. Each Slave has a routing table stored inside it. The routing table is written by the Controller. The stored information is the NodeID of other slaves that exist around the Slave when it enters the network. So each Slave knows which Slaves are around, and the Controller stores the routing information for all Slaves. When the distance between the Controller and the controlled slave exceeds the maximum control distance, the Controller will call the path to send the command to control the slave the last time. If the path fails, the new path will be retrieved from the first slave.


Z-Wave system solution for three-bedroom and one-room rooms: 3 embedded lighting controllers, 3 wall switches, a full-featured infrared remote control, a touch control panel to form the main system; embedded scene controller, handheld scenario The controller is a function expansion module. The full-featured infrared remote control and touch control screen are Controller, embedded lighting controller, embedded scene controller and handheld scene controller are all Slave.

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